Asian Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 20, Issue 8, pp 1203–1215 | Cite as

Influence of reactive SiO2 and Al2O3 on mechanical and durability properties of geopolymers

  • H. T. DineshEmail author
  • M. Shivakumar
  • M. S. Dharmaprakash
  • R. V. Ranganath
Technical Note


The various environmental ill effects from manufacturing of cement have provoked research into the advancement of concrete using a 100% replacement material by activated alkali solutions. Geopolymer concrete is an eco-friendly binder, which has attained significant attention among the researchers worldwide in past few decades. Large quantity of industrial waste ash is generated by thermal power plant, mining industry, timber industry, rice milling industry, steel and iron industry, etc. which have posed the industries a great threat when it comes to the disposal of these waste ash due to the various ill effects on health, environment, scarcity of lands, and other challenging issues. The best way in overcoming these waste management problems can be reduced by implementing geopolymer technology. The fundamental parameter in deciding the potential adoption of eco-friendly concrete in the construction sector is the durability of the construction material. This present study evaluates the influence of reactive silica/alumina present in the normal fly ash, ultra-fine fly ash, and ultra-fine slag, and blends of ultra-fine fly ash and ultra-fine slag on the strength development and durability properties. Test results indicate that the geopolymer concrete (GPC) exhibited high compressive strength and better durability characteristics when ultra-fine fly ash and slag are blended in optimum ratios to obtain a certain reactive silica/alumina ratio.


Fly ash Reactive ultrafine fly ash Ultrafine slag Alkali activation Workability Strength development Durability properties 



The authors gratefully acknowledge BMS college of Engineering, Bull Temple Road, Bengaluru and Bureau Veritas India private limited to permit conducting this work taken up at its laboratory located at Bangalore, India. The authors also acknowledge all the staffs supported in this research work and Eco-4 Trans Company for supplying reactive ultrafine fly ash used in this experimental study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing financial interest


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. T. Dinesh
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • M. Shivakumar
    • 1
  • M. S. Dharmaprakash
    • 1
  • R. V. Ranganath
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryBMS College of EngineeringBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringBMS College of EngineeringBangaloreIndia

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