• Tapio RaunioEmail author
  • Thomas Sedelius
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Presidential Politics book series (PASTPRPO)


This concluding chapter summarizes the main findings, connects them to the theoretical literature, and draws lessons about successful policy-making as well as policy or coordination failures. While acknowledging the importance of other variables, it establishes a clear connection between the level of intra-executive coordination and presidential activism, with the presidents enjoying considerably more discretion in Lithuania and Romania. The Finnish president, on the other hand, is subject to stronger legal and procedural constraints that contribute to smoother intra-executive relations. The chapter concludes the book by suggesting lines of inquiry for future research and by offering some general thoughts on the conditions for policy-making and power-sharing in semi-presidential systems.


Semi-presidentialism Successful policy-making Policy failure Coordination failure Intra-executive coordination Constitution Presidential activism Conditions for policy-making Power-sharing 

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Management and BusinessTampere UniversityTampereFinland
  2. 2.School of Education, Health and Social SciencesDalarna UniversityFalunSweden

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