Crohn’s Disease

  • Risto J. RintalaEmail author
  • Mikko P. Pakarinen
  • Antti Koivusalo
Living reference work entry


Crohn’s disease (CD) in children has become increasingly common in recent years, especially in the developed world. Despite advances considering knowledge of the pathogenesis of these diseases, the precise etiology is not understood, and there remains no permanent cure. Pain, diarrhea, and weight loss are typical symptoms of pediatric CD. Atypical symptoms and extra-intestinal manifestations may occur. The patient’s growth and nutritional status are often compromised at diagnosis of CD. The location and severity of pediatric CD differ substantially from adult-onset disease. The initial presentation is more widespread and severe that in adults. Prompt diagnosis, thereby avoiding the consequences of diagnostic delay, is essential in the work-up of suspected CD. The aim of the management of CD is to achieve rapid remission and there are several options to reach this goal. The initial treatment is medical; surgery is considered in a complicated disease course or in the case of refractory disease. Acute indications for surgery include emergent conditions such as toxic megacolon, intra-abdominal abscesses, and sepsis or severe bleeding. Elective indications for surgery are severe strictures and perianal disease, significant prepubertal growth delay, and complications of or unresponsiveness to medical therapy. CD in children requires multidisciplinary care in the context of a growing child. The management of pediatric CD focuses on controlling gut inflammation and optimizing growth, development, and quality of life.


Crohn’s disease Children Pediatric treatment 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Risto J. Rintala
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mikko P. Pakarinen
    • 1
  • Antti Koivusalo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric SurgeryChildren’s Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, University of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

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