Fluid and Electrolyte Balance in Infants and Children

  • Joseph ChukwuEmail author
  • Eleanor Molloy
Living reference work entry


During the time of rapid postnatal transition, for example, term and preterm neonates have different fluid requirements and electrolyte changes to the older children and adults (Table 1). Age and gender are the most important determinants of this wide variation in fluid and electrolyte requirements (Bianchetti and Simonetti 2009). Knowledge of the fluid and electrolyte composition and maintenance of homeostasis maintained at the different stages of infancy and childhood is essential to the effective management of fluid and electrolyte deficit in surgical pediatric patients.


Fluid balance Electrolyte balance Acid-base balance Dehydration Osmolality Perioperative management 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinical Research Unit, National Children’s Research CentreOur Lady’s Children’s HospitalDublin 12Ireland
  2. 2.Department of Neonatology, PaediatricsNational Maternity HospitalDublin 2Ireland
  3. 3.UCD School of Medicine and Medical SciencesUniversity College DublinDublinIreland
  4. 4.NeonatologyOur Lady’s Children’s HospitalDublin 12Ireland
  5. 5.PaediatricsRoyal College of Surgeons in IrelandDublinIreland

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