Disorders of the Breast

  • Steffi MayerEmail author
  • Jan-Hendrik Gosemann
Living reference work entry


This chapter summarizes the current knowledge of congenital deformities of the breast, which can be categorized in hyperplastic, hypoplastic, and deformational anomalies. The embryological and anatomical background is introduced to understand the diversity of deformations before details of frequent anomalies are discussed. Finally, general approaches of surgical correction with careful timing for treatment as well as best cosmetic and functional outcome are described.


Polythelia Polymastia Athelia Amastia Poland’s syndrome Gynecomastia Breast 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatric SurgeryUniversity of LeipzigLeipzigGermany

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