Time, Technology, and Teams: From GSS to Collective Action

  • Laku ChidambaramEmail author
  • Jama D. Summers
  • Shaila M. Miranda
  • Amber G. Young
  • Robert P. Bostrom
Living reference work entry


In this chapter we update the work of Chidambaram and Bostrom (Group Decis Negot 6(2):159–187, 1997a, Group Decis Negot 6(3): 231–254, 1997b) who synthesized decades of research on group development and examined their relevance for, what was then, an emerging technology – group support systems (GSS). Over the past two decades, their original conceptualizations of technology, teams, and time have evolved. Digital technology is ubiquitous, accessible through mobile devices, and more powerful in terms of its capabilities. These capabilities represent a variety of technological affordances that can be invoked by users at their discretion and represent a broader and more flexible array of choices compared to the relatively immutable structures embedded in GSS. Moreover, the teams using these affordances transcend organizational boundaries, and membership is fluid with members entering and exiting at will. Finally, notions of time have also evolved from chronic (clock time) to kairotic (experienced time). Two areas that exemplify these changes in technology, teams, and time are crowdfunding and digital activism. We examine the relevant literature in these two areas and synthesize the key findings, which illustrate that collective action is a broader, more fluid, and inclusive phenomenon compared to group support systems, and new approaches that embrace these changes are needed to study them.


Group development Group support systems Crowdfunding Digital activism Collective action 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laku Chidambaram
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jama D. Summers
    • 2
  • Shaila M. Miranda
    • 3
  • Amber G. Young
    • 4
  • Robert P. Bostrom
    • 5
  1. 1.Michael F. Price College of BusinessUniversity of OklahomaNormanUSA
  2. 2.University of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA
  3. 3.University of OklahomaNormanUSA
  4. 4.University of ArkansasFayettevilleUSA
  5. 5.University of GeorgiaAthensUSA

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