Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior

Living Edition
| Editors: Jennifer Vonk, Todd Shackelford


  • Reema ChaudharyEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47829-6_1439-1



Adrenalin is a hormone and neurotransmitter which is secreted by the adrenal glands and certain neurons in response to panic, threat, or fear (fight or flight response). Stress is another stimulus for secretion of this hormone.

Adrenal Glands

The paired glands located superior to each kidney in the retroperitoneal space are called adrenal (suprarenal) glands. The adrenal glands divided into two structurally and functionally distinct regions which are as follows:
  • Adrenal cortex, which comprises 89–90% of the gland and located peripherally.

  • Adrenal medulla, which is small and centrally located.

A connective tissue capsule covers the gland. The adrenal glands are richly supplied with the blood flow. Steroid hormones are produced by the adrenal cortex which is essential for maintaining electrolyte balance in the body. Complete loss of adrenocortical hormones lead to death due to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance in a few days to week which can be treated...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Molecular Biology DivisionBhabha Atomic Research Centre, HBNIMumbaiIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Mystera M. Samuelson
    • 1
  1. 1.The Institute for Marine Mammal StudiesGulfportUSA