Actinopterygii (Bony Fish)
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Actinopterygii is the most diverse group of Chordata, with about 470 families and more than 33,500 extant species. The most ancient fossils known of the group are scales from the Late Silurian. The fossil record of the group is more diverse, and the fossils are more complete in deposits of the Devonian and Carboniferous (Choo 2015; Nelson et al. 2016).
Along this 400 million years, the ray-finned fishes evolved reaching almost every aquatic environment in both salt and freshwater, from deep abyssal areas to the highest river basins. Throughout the evolution of these fishes, almost every kind of aquatic habitat has been reached, so that they are found in areas with large differences in temperature, elevation, pressure, salinity, pH, turbidity, luminosity, and availability of oxygen. This diversity of environments reflects the adaptations of the sensory organs and behavior found in the ray-finned fishes species (Helfman et al. 2009). In this...
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