Gender Equality

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Amanda Lange Salvia, Tony Wall

Exclusive Breastfeeding: Challenges and Way Forward

  • Aashima DabasEmail author
  • Harish ChellaniEmail author
  • Tapan Kumar JenaEmail author
Living reference work entry



Exclusive breastfeeding – Administration of only breast milk to an infant without any additional food or drink not even water.

Noncommunicable diseases – Chronic diseases which are not transmitted from one person to another. These include conditions like diabetes, hypertension, obesity, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases.

Obesity – It is a state of malnutrition which results from excess intake of macronutrients with decreased energy expenditure. It is measured as age- and gender-specific cutoffs of body mass index in children.


Breastfeeding is the essential right of every newborn which is often not granted. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding for about 6 months, with continuation of breastfeeding for 1 year or longer as mutually desired by mother and infant. Breastfeeding is emphasized as it is advantageous to health of both baby and mother (WHO 2011). The...
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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PaediatricsMaulana Azad Medical College and associated Lok Nayak HospitalNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Pediatrics, Safdarjang Hospital & Vardhman Mahavir Medical CollegeNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.School of Health SciencesIndira Gandhi National Open UniversityNew DelhiIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Chhabi Kumar

There are no affiliations available