Gender Equality

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Amanda Lange Salvia, Tony Wall

Gender Equality in the Universal and Regional Human Rights Systems: Prohibition of Discrimination and Beyond

  • Aleksandra Szczerba-ZawadaEmail author
  • Wojciech Burek
Living reference work entry



Anti-discrimination law is a body of legal norms intended to prevent and sanction discrimination, i.e., less favorable treatment of somebody because of his or her characteristic such as gender, racial or ethnic origin, disability, sexual orientation, etc. Nondiscrimination is considered to be the negative aspect of the equality principle – the obligation of a state to refrain from unjust differential treatment rather than taking positive action to create circumstances that promote full equality (Korkiamäki 2014).

Gender anti-discrimination law requires that women and men are treated alike in similar situations unless otherwise justified. In narrow perspective gender anti-discrimination law prohibits discrimination on the ground of sex, either directly or indirectly (formal equality). Direct gender discrimination occurs when someone is treated adversely because of her/his sex. Indirect gender discrimination takes place when there is a practice, rule, or...

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This research was partially supported by the European Union’s Erasmus+ program under the grant Jean Monnet Module “Inclusive Society Building Through EU Studies: Human Rights Protection in the European Union” (EUIncSo), project number 574570-EPP-1-2016-1-PL-EPPJMO-MODULE.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Administration and National SecurityThe Jacob of Paradies UniversityGorzów WielkopolskiPoland
  2. 2.Institute of European Studies Jagiellonian UniversityKrakowPoland

Section editors and affiliations

  • Katarzyna Cichos
    • 1
  1. 1.Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in WarsawWarsawPoland