Gender Equality

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Amanda Lange Salvia, Tony Wall

Gender Identity Within a Human Rights Framework: International and European Legal Aspects

  • Aleksandra Szczerba-ZawadaEmail author
  • Wiktor Dynarski
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70060-1_36-1

Definitions

Gender identity refers to one’s self-identification as male or female, neither of these, both, or other gender(s) and is described as such in both medical and sociological literature. Gender identity may (but does not necessarily has to) be assessed upon someone’s gender expression, i.e., the behavior through which one expresses their gender by using certain pronouns, wearing certain kinds of clothing, having a particular hairstyle, etc. (Tauches et al. 2018).

In international human rights law, gender identity is defined as “each person’s deeply felt internal and individual experience of gender, which may or may not correspond with the sex assigned at birth, including the personal sense of the body (which may involve, if freely chosen, modification of bodily appearance or function by medical, surgical or other means) and other expressions of gender, including dress, speech and mannerisms” (Yogyakarta Principles 2006).

When someone experiences disjunction between gender...

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Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was partially supported by the European Union’s Erasmus+ Program under grant Jean Monnet Module “Inclusive Society Building Through EU Studies: Human Rights Protection in the European Union” (EUIncSo), project number 574570-EPP-1-2016-1-PL-EPPJMO-MODULE.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Administration and National SecurityThe Jacob of Paradies UniversityGorzów WielkopolskiPoland
  2. 2.Institute of Applied Social Sciences, Centre for Social Studies on SexualityUniversity of WarsawWarsawPoland

Section editors and affiliations

  • Katarzyna Cichos
    • 1
  1. 1.Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in WarsawWarsawPoland