Gender Equality

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Amanda Lange Salvia, Tony Wall

Gender Imbalance in Academic Careers

  • Chris BradshawEmail author
Living reference work entry


Gender inequality is defined by the underrepresentation of women in sectors and professions in employment, a poorer record of advancement to higher levels of organizations than men and the historical relationship between the genders in society. Until the early twentieth century, the domination of men in governmental roles was mostly unchallenged. Gender inequality in the workplace can be defined as the lack of opportunity which females encounter in employment and includes “access to work”: advancement in careers and the women’s role in a male-dominated business world. This is further delineated by concepts of “horizontal” and “vertical” segregation. Horizontal segregation deals with the underrepresentation of women across roles, for example, the lack of females in science, technology, electronics and maths (STEM) areas of both study and work. Vertical segregation deals with the lack of female progression to the higher echelons of organizations, sometimes known as the “glass...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Education and Social SciencesUniversity of the West of ScotlandPaisleyUK

Section editors and affiliations

  • Tony Wall
    • 1
  1. 1.International Centre for ThrivingUniversity of ChesterChesterUK