Gender Equality

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Amanda Lange Salvia, Tony Wall

Gender Discrimination in the Labor Market

  • Elizabeth KiesterEmail author
Living reference work entry


Gender refers to the socially constructed norms and expectations traditionally associated with a person’s biological sex (West and Zimmerman 1987). This association also suggests that the terms “male” and “female” refer to both biological sex and the socially constructed behaviors and expectations men and women face in their daily lives. This is especially true in the workplace.

Discrimination refers to negative outcomes for a particular group of people often based on an ascribed characteristic and stereotypes attached to that characteristic. There are two types of discrimination. In the context of hiring, overt discrimination is a blatant display of unwillingness to hire a person based on a protected status, including gender and pregnancy, under the United State Civil Rights Act of 1964. In today’s labor market, overt discrimination is the least prominent form of discrimination due in part to gender discrimination policies (Kelly and Dobbin 1999; Tomaskovic-Devey and...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyAlbright CollegeReadingUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Melissa Haeffner
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Science and ManagementPortland State UniversityPortlandUSA