Anatomy of the Infant and Child

  • Mark D. StringerEmail author
Living reference work entry


There are key differences between the anatomy of the child and adult, most marked in newborn infants. These differences affect the accuracy of surface anatomical landmarks, surgical approaches and procedures, physiological and cardiorespiratory parameters and responses, and the ability to compensate for congenital malformations and/or the effects of surgical treatment. Anatomical differences in children that are particularly relevant to pediatric surgeons are discussed using a systems approach, focusing on growth and proportions, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the abdominal wall and gastrointestinal tract, and the genitourinary, musculoskeletal, and nervous systems.


Anatomy Neonatal anatomy Infant anatomy Clinical anatomy 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Paediatric SurgeryWellington HospitalWellingtonNew Zealand
  2. 2.Department of Paediatrics and Child HealthUniversity of OtagoWellingtonNew Zealand

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