Chylothorax and Other Pleural Effusions in Neonates
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Pleural effusion is a general term for the accumulation of fluid in the pleural space. Chylothorax results from the leakage of chyle from the thoracic duct into the pleural cavity and may occur spontaneously, traumatic, iatrogenic, or as malignant infiltration. Whether congenital or acquired, chylothorax frequently resolves with nonoperative measures aimed at optimizing ventilation and maintenance of nutrition. Surgical options such as pleuroperitoneal shunting, thoracic duct ligation, pleurodesis, pleurectomy, and intrapleural fibrin glue can be chosen for severe and persistent cases.
KeywordsCongenital chylothorax Acquired chylothorax Pleural effusion Hydrothorax Hemothorax Empyema
The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance of Aliza P. Cohen, MA, in the writing of this chapter.
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